1.Conservation measures taken 
Kulangsu has been under good management and control by local government and concerned administrative authorities since the establishment of New China. As guided by the principle to retain the original state and style, overall construction on the island has been under effective control, laying a good foundation for conservation of the urban historical landscape. After the 1980s, more and more attention has been given to conservation of the cultural heritage on Kulangsu. A series of conservation measures have been implemented in three stages. Protection at the preliminary stage mainly focused on conservation of the island landscape and cultural relics, including strict control on construction on the island, conservation of natural landscape resources, unique urban fabric and structure, relocation of industrial premises which may exert adverse impact on the human settlement. Important cultural relics were listed as protected heritage properties. For the second phase, attention was given to protect a large number of historic buildings built during the 19th century till middle of the 20th century. Investigation, survey and archiving were carried out. Many buildings on KULANGSU were recognized as Historic Buildings in different levels. Management regulations, special plans and maintenance schedule were prepared and announced. The third phase refers to the period entering 21st century, especially since 2006, with deeper understanding on the Kulangsu culture, when government administrative departments and the communities began to realize the significance of the whole island as a cultural heritage site. A lot of heritage protection work was carried out in the third phase. Focus was shifted on conservation of the whole heritage site. Authenticity, integrity and minimal interventions are set out as the principle for heritage protection. New measures include the protection and maintenance of heritage buildings, improvement and protection on current environment, and prevention and supervisionon disasters and risks.
Historic buildings on Kulangsu were defined as Protected Heritage Properties and included into the national scheme for protection of cultural relics.
All representative historic buildings, yards and structures and representative cultural relics of the core heritage attributes are in the national, provincial and county heritage lists. Moreover, 931 buildings have been defined as Historic Buildings, including 117 Major Historic Buildings, 274 general Historic Buildings and 540 registed Historic Buildings added recently. Protected areas and construction control areas have been set out to ensure the security and integrity of heritage elements. Protection measures of respective heritage attributse have been brought into the protection schemes at different level.

2.Spatial pattern and road network
Kulangsu’s road system formed from the 19th century to the mid-20th century was well maintained and continued after the founding of the People’s Republic of China. In the past more than 50 years, road maintenance was carried out mainly, and there was basically no new construction project. In the Conservation and Management Plan for Kulangsu Cultural Heritage Site formulated and released in 2010, Kulangsu’s road framework is listed as a very important historical relic under protection, and the completeness of Kulangsu’s spatial pattern is further ensured through implementation of the following measures:
1) Keeping the traveling mode of walking on roads;
2) Keeping historical roads’ patterns, directions and widths, and keeping the height proportion between roadside facades on both sides of streets and lanes;
3) Keeping roadside buildings and yard walls with historical styles, and prohibiting destructive acts such as destruction of walls for shop opening;
4) Keeping drainage ditches dug along original roads and traces of cover slabs;
5) Continuing to use roads’ historical names.

3.Natural landscapes and cultural relics
During the period of the Municipal Council, Kulangsu specially recognized the Sunlight Rock, Kulang Stone, Jimu Stone, Bacon Hill, Yanwei Stone and other symbolic natural landscape elements as “Scenic Stones”, clearly stipulating that no damage was allowed to these stones. Through implementation of the scenic area’s overall plan, the conservation and management plan and relevant regulations, protection of the integrity of natural landscapes and cultural relics is ensured. The work already implemented includes:
1) Protecting the layer relation between natural greening and hill contours, demolishing or renovating later built structures affecting landscape symbols, and ensuring the completeness of the island’s contour and skyline;
2) Protecting important visual corridors of landscapes, and prohibiting interference of newly built and renovated facilities.

4.Conservation on Kulangsu Historic Buildings
1999 - The Protection Plan of Kulangsu Historic Buildings was enacted and 308 historical buildings were under the protection of the Plan.
January 13, 2000 - Regulations for the Protection of Historic Buildings on Kulangsu was passed at a session of the 11th Xiamen Standing Committee of the NPC and implemented on April 1, 2000.
November 21, 2000 - the list of the first “Committee on Conservation of Historic Buildings on Kulangsu” was announced and Office for Kulangsu Historic Building Protection was established at the
same time.
2015 - With the supplement of new identification standards, about 540 buildings are supplemented as historic buildings based on the new round of general investigation.
In recent years, a total of 170 historic buildings have been repaired, including 60 Major Historic Buildings and 110 General Historic Buildings.

5.Environmental renovation and protection
In the second half of the 20th century, some buildings and facilities with adverse influence on historical landscapes emerged from residence construction for alleviating residential pressure and tourist scenic area construction successively due to continuous development of industrial production. Kulangsu-Wanshi Mountain Scenic Area was recognized by the State Council as a National Scenic Area in 1988. Thus, Kulangsu, as an independent part of in the Kulangsu-Wanshi Mountain Scenic Area, became a protected scenic spot. Local government entrusted Xiamen Urban Planning and Design Institute and Xiamen Landscape Planning & Design Institute to develop the General Plan for the Protection of Kulangsu-Wanshi Mountain Scenic Area, which was approved by the State Council and implemented in 1988. The plan was revised and improved by the two original planning institutes in 2006 and 2014. The revised version is currently in use. Measures which have been taken concerning conservation of Urban Historic Landscape on Kulangsu are:

- Improvement of the environment and, adjustment on tourism structure;

- Relocation of industrial and mining enterprises on the northwest of the Island;

- Remove of buildings/structures that partially impact the spatial relations and visual corridor of the historic buildings.
In recent years, to coordinate protection of the heritage site and restoration of the historical environment, under the guidance of the Conservation and Management Plan for KULANGSU Cultural Heritage Site, a series of implementation plans for key district environment improvement had been formulated and implemented.

6.Disaster and Risk Prevention
Currently there are several different disaster and risk prevention systems on Kulangsu to prevent against disasters such as typhoon and fire:
- headquarters in charge of disaster emergency;
- emergency communication network;
- emergency rescue teams, including Kulangsu fire station and fire brigade;
- contingency plans and safety rules on typhoon, storm; endangered buildings; forest fire; fire control; maritime rescue;
- protection system: Emergency and rescue funds are covered by the annual financial budget of the government. The municipal technical departments are responsible for forecast and monitoring of the disaster as well as support of necessary technologies.