A.Meaning of application for World Heritage

1.Why do we apply for world heritage?
It is because of one word, “protection”. We shall protect Kulangsu. Protection of heritage is the foundation for all utilization and inheritance, and the essence and root throughout the whole “Convention for the Protection of World Cultural and Natural Heritage”.

B.Basic knowledge of Kulangsu

2.What is range of application of world heritage?

The range of application of world heritage by Kulangsu includes two parts. One is heritage area, the other is relief area. Heritage area: The whole land area of Kulangsu and sea area defined by the surrounding reefs is 316.2 hectares.Relief area: the surrounding with direct influence on heritage area is 886 hectares.

3.How many stages are there for the formation of Kulangsu?

Kulangsu mainly experienced two development stages, namely, foreign culture spread period (1840-1903) and multi cultural integration period (1903-1941).

C.Outstanding universal value of Kulangsu shown for application of world heritage

4.What is outstanding universal value?

“Outstanding universal value” refers to “rare cultural and natural value that is beyond the national boundary with the important meaning for the current and the future”.

5.What is outstanding universal value of Kulangsu?

Kulangsu witnessed the tortuous course of China entering modernization in the late Qing dynasty with the globalization tide impact in the early days, and is the typical representative of multicultural communication, collision and mutual learning in an early stage of globalization; it is also international community jointly established by the Minnan local residents, foreign multinational expatriates and Chinese communities with the outstanding modern cultural diversity and the quality of life. 

6.What is the supporting point for outstanding universal value of Kulangsu?

The supporting point has three aspects: one is the three standards for Kulangsu listed in the “world heritage list”; the second is the integrity and authenticity reflected by the existing landscape, architecture and of Kulangsu; the third is that Kulangsu satisfies the requirements of conservation and management.

7.What are aspects of Kulangsu to fit the standards of application of world heritage?

“Kulangsu” conforms to three items of six standards of “world heritage list” included in the “implementation of the protection of world cultural and natural heritage convention operational guidelines”.

Standard (ii) shows Chinese traditional culture, local culture and foreign culture, and broad and deep communication in terms of social life, architectural landscape design and construction, artistic style, modern technology.

Standard (iii) is a miniature of China into the modernization, and also the witness of Minnan immigrant culture’s pioneering and containment.

Standard (iv) is a unique example of the international community with high quality and early modern features in the modern east Asia and southeast Asia.

8.What are the aspects of authenticity reflected by Kulangsu?

1).Residential functions and properties, well-preserved city space pattern and road system, special section form and complete history building with continuation and home garden landscape.
2).The authenticity of heritage value carrier’s form, design, material, function, construction craft, location and environment

9.What are the aspects of integrity reflected by Kulangsu?

Completely protect all elements of heritage with outstanding universal value, including island natural landscape, urban spatial structure, community public management agencies, institutions in island, all kinds of community public service facilities, residential building and home garden.

10.What is the culture heritage protection institute of Kulangsu?

Kulangsu scenic area management committee is the island’s unified administrative institution, with related management responsibilities of the island’s heritage protection, to effectively coordinate the relationship between protection and community development.

11.What are the protection laws and regulations of Gulanyu currently?

1).In 2011, Kulangsu culture heritage protection management planning, detailed planning of Kulangsu controlling nature
2)In 2012, articles of Kulangsu culture heritage protection in Xiamen Special Economic Zone

12.How many are there units or architectures in Kulangsu included in State Protected Historic system?

Kulangsu has 1 existing national key cultural relics protection unit, 20 groups, a total of 30 buildings, 15 provincial-level cultural relics protection units, 25 municipal cultural relics protection units, as well as a total of 391 certified historic buildings, in which there are 117 buildings with key protection, and 274 general protection buildings.

13.What is the protection principle of Kulangsu?

Protection dominated, rescue first, reasonable utilization, strengthening management

D.Description of heritage elements

14.What are the heritage elements?

Representative historical buildings, historical roads, natural landscape, cultural relics

15.What are the representative historical buildings?

Kulangsu has 51 groups of representative historical buildings, including municipal council relics, joint trial court site and other public management institutions, Japanese consulate site, Japanese police department and dormitory site, the U.S. consulate site, Hutchison warehouse site, British merchant Asia oil company site, Danish great northern telegraph company site, The China & South Sea Bank site and consular diplomatic and commercial financial institutions in island; Sunlight Rock temple, Zhongde palace, Huang parcles, Union Church, Holy Trinity Church, Catholic Church and other religious sacrificial facilities; Mongolia school site (Wutianding pavilion), Yude female school site, Anxian building, minnan confucianism publishing house, and other teaching cultural and educational facilities; Salvation hospitals and nursing school site, Bo’ai hospital site, Kulangsu private hospital site (Hongning hospital site), and other medical facilities; Wanguo club site, Yenping theater site, foreigners football field site, and other cultural and entertainment facilities; Sanqiutian wharf site, site, Kulangsu water company site, Kulangsu telephone company site, Xiamen customs communication tower site, dovetail mountain batterie ruins, Christian cemetery and community infrastructures and services; Siluo Dacuo, Manor Garden, London curtilage female missionaries, British consular residence site, HSBC bank mansion, Xiamen customs ship bureau site, Xiamen customs deputy tax residence hall site, Liao villa (Lin Yutang former residence), Xilin Kanqing villa, Fanpo building, Huang Cimin villas, spring herb hall, Huang Rongyuan hall, Hi heaven, Huang garden, Yang garden, gossip building, Shuzhuang Garden, Xiamen customs inspection duty member apartment site, HSBC staff apartment site and other kinds of residential buildings.

16.What are the main historical roads of Kulangsu?

There are four main historical roads, namely, Sunlight Rock and Yanzaijiao Loop Road, Beacon Hill Loop Road, Lu’er Reef Loop Road, radial road towards the southeast coast.

17.What are the natural landscapes of Kulangsu?

Penang Hill, Sunlight Rock, Jimu Hill, Langdang Hill, Hero Hill, Beacon Hill, Dovetail Hill.

18.What are the cultural heritages of Kulangsu?

Sunlight Rock and Yanping culture heritage (Guoxing well, Longtou mountain village relic, etc.), Inscription of reviving Kulangsu Sanhe palace cliff engravings

E.Situation of China’s application of world heritage and brief introduction of application course by Kulangsu

19.How is China’s application of world heritage?

Since the People's Republic of China joined the contracting part list of Convention for the Protection of World Cultural and Natural Heritage on December 12, 1985, by the end of 2015, approved by unesco, there were 48 Chinese world heritage items included in the “world heritage list” (including 10 natural heritage items, 34 cultural heritage items, 4 natural and cultural heritage items), with 1 multinational project. In quantity, it ranks second in the world, secondary to Italy (50 items).

20.What is the course of application of world heritage by Kulangsu? 

In 2008, Kulangsu started the work of application of world heritage.

In 2012, Kulangsu was included in UNESCO World Heritage China Tentative List.

In 2015, State Administration of Cultural Heritage released the declaration and agreed to recommend “Kulangsu” as the project for the application of world heritage in 2017 in principle.

On January 29, 2016, approved by the State Council, national committee secretariat of China UNESCO released the declaration to UNESCO World Heritage Centre that “Fujian Kulangsu” was formally recommended as 2017 culture heritage project.