A.Meaning of application for World Heritage
1.Why do we apply for world heritage?
It is because of one word, “protection”. We shall protect Kulangsu. Protection of heritage is the foundation for all utilization and inheritance, and the essence and root throughout the whole “Convention for the Protection of World Cultural and Natural Heritage”.
B.Basic knowledge of Kulangsu
2. What is the name of this World Heritage Property?
Kulangsu, a historic international settelment
3. What is property area and buffer zone of Kulangsu ?
The total property area of Kulangsu, a historic international settelment is 316.2 hectares, including all heritage attributes reflecting the Outstanding Universal Values of Kulangsu. The buffer zone covers about 886 hectares, includes the surrounding with direct influence on property area.
4.How many stages are there for the formation of Kulangsu?
Kulangsu mainly experienced two development stages, namely, foreign culture spread period (1840-1903) and multi cultural integration period (1903-1941).
C.Outstanding Universal Value of Kulangsu
5.What is Outstanding Universal Value?
Outstanding Universal Value refers to “rare cultural and natural value that is beyond the national boundary with the important meaning for the current and the future”.
6.What is statement of Outstanding Universal Value of Kulangsu?
Kulangsu Island is located on the estuary of Chiu-lung River facing the city of Xiamen across the 600-meter-wide Lujiang Strait. With the opening of Xiamen as a commercial port in 1843, and Kulangsu as an international settlement in 1903, the island of the southern coastal areas of the Chinese empire suddenly became an important window for Sino-foreign exchanges. Its heritage reflects the composite nature of a modern settlement composed of 931 historical buildings of a variety of local and international architectural styles, natural sceneries, a historic network of roads and historic gardens.
Through the concerted endeavour of local Chinese, returned overseas Chinese, and foreign residents from many countries, Kulangsu developed into an international settlement with outstanding cultural diversity and modern living quality. It also became an ideal dwelling place for the overseas Chinese and elites who were active in East Asia and South-eastern Asia as well as an embodiment of modern habitat concepts of the period between mid-19th and mid-20th century.
Kulangsu is an exceptional example of the cultural fusion, which emerged from these exchanges, which remain legible in an organic urban fabric formed over decades constantly integrating more diverse cultural references. Most exceptional testimony of the fusion of various stylistic influences is a genuinely new architectural movement the Amoy Deco Style, which emerged from the island.
7.What is the supporting point for Outstanding Universal Value of Kulangsu?
The supporting point has three aspects: one is meeting the criteria (ii) and (iv) for Kulangsu inscribed on the “world heritage list”; the second is the integrity and authenticity of all heritage attributes reflecting the Outstanding Universal Values of Kulangsu; the third is that Kulangsu satisfies the requirements of conservation and management.
8.What are aspects of Kulangsu to meet the criteria of inscription on the World Heritage List?
Kulangsu, a historic international settlement meets the criteria (ii) and (iv) of the Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention to be inscribed on the World Heritage List.
Criterion (ii): Kulangsu Island exhibits in its architectural features and styles the interchange of Chinese, South East Asian and European architectural and cultural values and traditions produced in this variety by foreign residents or returned overseas Chinese who settled on the island. The settlement created did not only mirror the various influences settlers brought with them from their places of origin or previous residence but it synthesized a new hybrid style – the so-called Amoy Deco Style, which developed in Kulangsu and exerted influences over a far wider region in South-east Asian coastal areas and beyond. In this, the settlement illustrates the encounters, interactions and fusion of diverse values during an early Asian globalization stage.
Criterion (iv): Kulangsu is the origin and best representation of the Amoy Deco Style. Named after Xiamen’s local Hokkien dialect name Amoy, Amoy Deco Style refers to an architectural style and typology, which first occurred in Kulangsu and illustrates the fusion of inspirations drawn from local building traditions, early western and in particular modernist influences as well as the southern Fujian Migrant culture. Based on these the Amoy Deco Style shows a transformation of traditional building typology towards new forms, which were later referenced throughout South-East Asia and became popular in the wider region.
9.What is the statement of authenticity of Kulangsu?
Kulangsu Island has retained its authenticity in form and design, location and setting and in many elements of the island material and substance as well as – to a lower extent – use and function. Both the urban settlement patterns as well as the architectural structures have retain their characteristic layout and stylistic features. The latter remain credible representations of the various architectural styles the island unites as well as the Amoy Deco Style it created.
Kulangsu retains its original location and natural landscape setting and has preserved the atmospheric qualities of an ideal residential settlement with a wide range of public services, which continue to serve their original function. The urban structures retain protected by the original legal context, which was created for the establishment of the international settlement in 1903 and remains valid until present. The various spatial contexts of the island, both natural and built-up retain their original links and relations including road connections and sight relations.
10.What is the statement of integrity of Kulangsu?
The integrity of the historic landscape has been maintained, primarily as result of consistent conservation of historic architectural structures and effective development controls regarding height, volume and form of new buildings. The historic relationship of built up and green spaces also contributes to the overall landscape integrity which includes the preserved natural sceneries of cliffs and rocks and the historic gardens, both affiliated courtyard and independent private gardens.
The completeness of the property is demonstrated in the delimitation of the entire island including its surrounding coastal water until the edge of the reef, which underpins that the built structures and the natural setting of the island form one harmonious whole. The early recognition of the harmony has prevented extensive development in the waters surrounding the island, which can be witnesses on other islands or the nearby mainland. Essential for the recognition of the value of the island is that it was never connected to Xiamen via traffic infrastructure and remains solely accessible by ferry. Today, this restriction constitutes and essential element of visitor management processes ensuring the continued intactness of the island.
Tourism pressures are a concern that could affect the integrity of the island and hence require strict controls. A maximum number of 35,000 visitors per day will be allowed to access Kulangsu, a number that will require close monitoring to ensure it suffices to prevent negative impacts of large visitor flows.
11.What is the culture heritage protection institute of Kulangsu?
The Administrative Committee of Xiamen Kulangsu Scenic and Historic Area is responsible for the conservation of all heritage attributes on the island and the coordination between heritage conservation on one hand and urban construction and community development on the other hand.
12.What are the protection laws and regulations of Kulangsu currently?
l Regulations of Xiamen Special Economic Zone on the Conservation of the Cultural Heritage of Kulangsu (revised in 2019)
l The Conservation and Management Plan for Kulangsu Cultural Heritage Site (approved in 2014)
13.How many sites in Kulangsu has been included in heritage protection system?
Representative historic buildings, yards and structures, cultural sites on Kulangsu have been included in the Heritage List at national, provincial and county level; other historic buildings, historic roads and natural landscapes are also under good protection and management. 36 core heritage attributes have been National Heritage Sites; 28 attributes are Provincial Heritage Sites and other 4 are County Heritage Sites. 439 buildings have been included in the list of historic buildings under the protection of Regulations for the Protection of Historic Buildings in Kulangsu.
14.What is the protection principle of Kulangsu?
Protection dominated, rescue first, reasonable utilization, strengthening management
D.Description of heritage attributes
15.What are the heritage attributes of Kulangsu?
Complete historic urban landscape including the natural landscape elements, urban spatial structures comprising of historic roads and urban fabrics, public management offices, institutions and various public service facilities, residential buildings and home gardens that containing the Outstanding Universal Value of Kulangsu.
16.What are the representative historic buildings, yards and structures of core heritage attributes?
Kulangsu has 51 core heritage attributes, including Site of Former Kulangsu Municipal Council, Former Kulangsu Mixed Court and other public management institutions, Former Japanese Consulate, Former Japanese Police Station and Staff Quarters, Former American Consulate, Former Boyd & Co. Warehouse, Former Office Building of British Asiatic Petroleum Company, Former Office of Great Northern Telegraph Company (Denmark), Former Building of China & South Sea Bank Limited and consular diplomatic and commercial financial institutions in island; Sunlight Rock Temple, Zhongde Taoist Temple, Huang's Ancestral Hall, Union Church, Trinity Church, Catholic Church and other religious sacrificial facilities; Former Mengxuetang (Wu Tianding's House), Former A.R.C.M. Girls' Middle Schools, Anxian Hall, Former Southern Fujian Christian Bookstore, and other teaching cultural and educational facilities; Former Hope Hospital and the Nurses' School, Former Pok Oi Hospital, Former Private Kulangsu Hospital (Former Hongning Hospital), and other medical facilities; Former Amoy Club, Former Yanping Complex,  Foreigners' Football Field, and other cultural and entertainment facilities; Sanqiutian Jetty, Former Kulangsu Water Supply Facility, Former Office of Kulangsu Telephone Company, Former Amoy Customs Communication Tower, Site of Signal Cannon Emplacement on Yanwei Hill, Christian Cemetery and community infrastructures and services; Four-courtyard Mansion, Hai Tian Tang Gou Mansion, Residence of London Missionary Society for Women, Former Residence of British Consulate, HSBC bank mansion, Former Amoy Maritime Affairs Office, Residences of Amoy Deputy Commissioner of Customs, Former Staff Residence HSBC Bank, Liao Family Villa (Lin Yutang's Former Residence), Xilin & Kanqing Villa, Fanpo Mansion, Huang Cimin Villa, The Chuncao Villa, Huang Rongyuan Villa, Dafudi Courtyard Mansion, Huang Family Villa, Yang Family Mansion, Bagua Mansion (Eight Diagrams Mansion), Shuzhuang Garden, Former Amoy Customs Goods Inspectors' Quarters, Former Residence of HSBC Bank and other kinds of residential buildings.
17.What are the main historical roads of Kulangsu of core heritage attributes?
There are four main historical roads, namely, Sunlight Rock and Yanzaijiao Loop Road, Bijia Hill Loop Road, Lu’erjiao Loop Road, Radiate Road to Southeastern Coast.
18.What are the natural landscapes of Kulangsu?
Flag-raising Hill, Sunlight Rock, Jimu Hill, Langdang Hill, Hero Hill, Bijia Hill, Yanwei Hill.
19.What are the cultural relics of Kulangsu?
Sunlight Rock and Yanping culture relics (Cliff Inscription on Sunlight Rock, Koxing’s well, Longtou Hill village), Cliff Inscription about the Sanhe Taoist Temple’s Reconstruction
20.How many world heritage sites in China?
Since joining the Convention Concerning the Protection of World Cultural and Natural Heritage in 1985, China has 55 World Heritage Sites to the end of 2019; of these 37 are cultural heritage sites, 14 are natural heritage sites, and 4 are cultural and natural (mixed) sites.
21.What is the course of application of world heritage by Kulangsu?
In 2008, Kulangsu started the work of application of world heritage.
In 2012, Kulangsu was included in UNESCO World Heritage China Tentative List.
In 2015, State Administration of Cultural Heritage released the declaration and agreed to recommend “Kulangsu” as the project for the application of world heritage in 2017 in principle.
On July 8, 2017, at the 41st session of the UNESCO World Heritage Committee in Poland, Kulangsu, a historic international settlement, was officially inscribed on the World Heritage List.